marketing 04.09.2019
 marketing Dissertation

Sport Management Assessment 17 (2014) 97–106

Items lists offered at SciVerse ScienceDirect

Sport Administration Review

diary homepage:

Branding players: Exploration and conceptualization of

athlete company image

Akiko Arai a, Yong Jae Ko a, *, Stephen Ross m



University of Florida, Usa

University of Minnesota, Us

A R T We C D E I actually N F O


Article history:

Received 21 12 , 2011

Received in revised form twenty six April 2013

Accepted twenty seven April 2013

Available online 13 June 2013

In this examine, the current problems of sportsperson brand administration are discussed and the construct of athlete brand picture is conceptualized. A conceptual model of sportsperson brand photo (MABI) can be developed incorporating three important dimensions: athletic performance, eye-catching appearance, and marketable way of living. These measurements are defined by an athlete's on-field characteristics, attractive external presence, and off-field marketable characteristics. This examine contributes to the activity branding literary works by providing the first complete conceptual framework of sportsperson brand image and providing managerial effects for building and controlling the brand picture of individual sports athletes. ß 2013 Sport Managing Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published by simply Elsevier Ltd. All privileges reserved.



Manufacturer management

Brand image

Conceptual model

1 . Introduction

Lately, many sports athletes have been growing their influence beyond their very own sport by simply getting involved in a variety of social activities and businesses. In light of recent media traditions, those sportsmen are considered ‘‘a social signal, carrying cultural meanings and ideological beliefs, which exhibit the intimacies of individuality, inviting desire and identification; an emblem of nationwide celebrity, founded on the body, fashion and personal style'' (Gledhill, 1991, p. xiii). The concept of ‘athlete brand' has emerged using their multi-functional and multi-platform mother nature. Athletes are believed not only because vehicles pertaining to advertisements or product endorsement, but as well as ethnic products which can be sold as ‘‘brands'' (Gilchrist, 2005). In fact , there are numerous sport agencies at present in existence which provide a vast range of client level services. Through this highly competitive industry, controlling brands intended for athletes is becoming an essential job for real estate agents (IBIS Globe Industry studies, 2008). For example , IMG, the world's major sport agency announced their particular mission affirmation as ‘‘Today, we help hundreds of top-notch athletes, mentors, industry management and exclusive sports organizations maximize their particular earnings potential and build strong personal brands'' (IMG, and. d. ). The brand management for players has grown in importance because the concept of logos is suitable for athletes because products. Previous branding studies have written about positive consequences of good branding including: influencing the probability of brand choice, readiness to pay premium selling price, marketing communication effectiveness, and promotion of positive person to person (Aaker, mil novecentos e noventa e seis; Berry, 2k; Keller, 1993; Rein, Kotler, & Glasses, 2006a). These types of benefits can also be highly applicable to individual athletes, with well-branded sportsmen attaining value premiums on the salary, copy fees, deal monies, and the ability to keep fan support even when their particular performance features declined (Gladden & Funk, 2001). Well-branded athletes whom carry representational messages may attract companies seeking effective endorsers. Furthermore, the

* Corresponding publisher. Tel.: plus1 352 392 4042; fax: +1 352 392 7588. E-mail treat: [email protected]fl. edu (Y. M. Ko).

1441-3523/$ – see front subject ß 2013 Sport Administration Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published simply by Elsevier Ltd. All privileges reserved.


A. Arai ainsi que al. as well as Sport Supervision Review 18 (2014) 97–106

established manufacturer value of...

References: Aaker, D. (1991). Managing company equity. New york city: Free Press.

Aaker, Deb. (1996). Building strong brands. New York: Totally free Press.

Andrews, D., & Jackson, T. (2001). Sport celebrities, open public culture, and private experience. In D. D. Andrews (Ed. ), Sport stars: The cultural governmental policies of showing off celebrity


Bauer, L., Sauer, N., & Exler, S. (2005). The devotion of German soccer followers: Does a team's brand picture matter? Worldwide Journal of Sports Advertising & Support,

7, 14–22.

Bauer, They would., Sauer, D., & Exler, S. (2008). Brand photo and supporter loyalty in professional crew sport: A refined unit and empirical assessment. Diary of Sport

Management, twenty two, 205–226.

Kafig, H., Stokburger-Sauer, N., & Schmitt, (2005). Customer-based company equity in the team sport industry: Operationalization and effect on the monetary

success of sport teams

Berry, T. (2000). Creating service company equity. Log of the Schools of Marketing Technology, 28, 128–137.

Biskup, C., & Pfister, G. (1999). I would like to get like her/him: Are athletes role-models intended for boys and girls? Western european Physical Education Review, a few, 199–218.

Braunstein, J., & Zhang, M. (2005). Proportions of athletic star electric power associated with technology Y sports activities consumption. Foreign Journal of Sports Advertising &

Sponsorship, 6, 242–267.

Bruner, G. C., & Hensel, G. J. (1996). Marketing weighing scales handbook. Chi town, IL: American Marketing Relationship.

Chen, C. (2001). Employing free relationship to examine the partnership between the features of brand groups and company equity. The Journal of Product and

Brand Administration, 10, 439–451.

Choi, H. M., & Rifon, D. J. (2007). Who is the celebrity in advertising? Understanding dimensions of celebrity images. The Record of Popular Culture, forty five, 304–324.

Clifton, R., & Simmons, J. (2004). Brands and branding. Princeton, Nj: Bloomberg Press.

Cordiner, L. (2001). Sport wakes up for the value of brands. Athletics Marketing (14608359), 75, 13.

Daniels, E. (2009). Sex objects, sports athletes, and hot athletes: How media representations of women athletes can impact adolescent ladies and school women. Log

of Young Research, 24, 399–422.

Dobni, D., & Zinkhan, G. (1990). Looking for brand photo: A basis analysis. In Marvin, Electronic., Goldberg, G., & Richard, P. (Eds. ), Advances in Client Research pp.

Escalas, M. E. (2004). Narrative processing: Building consumer connections to brands. Diary of Client Psychology, 16, 168–180.

France, J. Ur., & Raven, B. H. (1959). Facets of electricity. In G. Cartwright (Ed. ), Research in cultural power (pp. 150–167). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan.

Gilchrist, P. (2005). Local characters or global stars. In L. Allison (Ed. ), The global national politics of sport: The function of global institutions in sport (pp. 107–126). London, Great britain:


Gladden, J. Meters., & Funk, D. C. (2001). Understanding brand loyalty in professional sport: Evaluating the link between brand groups and company loyalty.

Gladden, J. Meters., & Funk, D. (2002). Developing an understanding of brand associations in team sport: Scientific evidence from consumers of professional sport.

Gladden, M. M., Milne, G., & Sutton, W. (1998). A conceptual framework for determining brand equity in Split I college or university athletics. Record of Sport Management, doze, 1–


Gledhill, C. (1991). Stardom: Industry of desire. Greater london, England: Routledge.

Gutman, J. (1982). A means-end chain model based on consumer categorization processes. Record of Marketing, 46(2), 60–72.

Hoek, J., Dunnet, J., Wright, M., & Gendall, G. (2000). Descriptive and evaluative attributes: What relevance to marketers? Record of Merchandise and Company Management,

on the lookout for, 415–433.

Homer, P. (2006). Relationships amongst ad-induced influence, beliefs, and attitudes. Journal of Marketing, 35(1), 35–51.

Hovland, C. I., Janis, I. M., & Kelley, H. H. (1953). Interaction and persuasion; psychological research of judgment change. Fresh Haven: Yale University.

IBIS World. (2008). Celebrity & sports real estate agents in the US Retrieved from (08. 04. 08).

Joseph, B. (1982). The reliability of literally attractive communicators: A review. Diary of Marketing, 11(3), 15–24.

Jowdy, Electronic., & Mcdonald, M. (2002). Tara Nott case study: Celeb endorsements and image matching. Sport Advertising Quarterly, 10, 186–189.

Kamins, M. (1990). An investigation in the match-up speculation in celeb advertising: When beauty can be only epidermis deep. Diary of Promoting, 19, 4–13.

Keller, K. (1993). Conceptualizing, measuring, and managing customer-based brand fairness. Journal of Marketing, 57(1), 1–22.

Keller, E. (2008). Strategic brand administration: Building, testing and taking care of brand value. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Corridor.

Kim, L., Morris, M., & Swait, J. (2008). Antecedents of true company loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 37(2), 99–117.

Kirmani, A., & Shiv, B. (1998). Effects of resource congruity in brand behaviour and philosophy: The moderating role of issue-relevant elaboration. Journal of Consumer

Psychology, 7(1), 25–47.

Lau, P., Cheung, Meters., & Ransdell, L. (2008). A structural equation type of the relationship between body notion and self-esteem: Global physical self-concept

because the mediator

L‘Etang, T. (2006). Pr and sport in advertising culture. Pr Review, 32, 386–394.

Low, G. H., & Lamb, C. Watts., Jr. (2000). The way of measuring and dimensionality of brand interactions. The Diary of Item and Brand Management, 9, 350–368.

Levitt, T. (1969). The promoting mode: Pathways to corporate growth. New york city: McGraw-Hill.

Lutz, R. L. (1991). The role of attitude theory in marketing. In They would. H. Kassarjian & Big t. S. Robertson (Eds. ), Perspectives in consumer habit (pp. 317–339). Glenview, ELLE:

Scott, Foresman and Organization.

McCracken, G. (1989). Who may be the celebrity endorser? Cultural foundations from the endorsement procedure. Journal of Consumer Exploration, 16, 310–321.

McGuire, T. J. (1968). The nature of perceptions and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & Electronic. Aronson (Eds. ), Handbook of social psychology (2nd ed., pp. 136–314). Studying,

MA: Addison-Wesley.

McGuire, W. J. (1985). Attitude and attitude change. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds. ), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 233–346). New York: Randomly House.

Mowen, J. C., & Minor, M. (1998). Consumer tendencies fifth edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Mullin, B. T., Hardy, H., & Sutton, W. A. (2007). Sport marketing. Champaign, IL: Human being Kinetics.

Ohanian, R. (1990). Construction and validation of any scale to measure movie star endorsers' recognized expertise, dependability, and appeal. Journal of

Advertising, 19(3), 39–52.

Ohanian, R. (1991). The impact of celebrity spokespersons' perceived picture in customers' intention to purchase. Journal of Advertising Research, 31, 46–54.

Raggio, R., & Leone, R. (2007). The theoretical separation of brand name equity and brand worth: Managerial implications for proper planning. Record of Brand

Administration, 14, 380–395.

Raggio, L., & Leone, R. (2009). Chasing manufacturer value: Fully leveraging brand equity to maximize brand worth. Journal of brand name Management, 16, 248–263.

Rein, I. T., Kotler, G., & Shields, B. (2006). The elusive fan: Remake sports in a crowded industry. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rein, We., Kotler, S., & Glasses, B. (2006). A sports chance by branding. Manufacturer Strategy, 30–31.

Richelieu, A., & Pons, F. (2006). Toronto Maple Leafs vs . Football Club Barcelona: How two legendary sporting activities teams developed their company equity. Foreign Journal of

Sports Promoting & Support, 7, 231–250.

Ross, S i9000. (2006). A conceptual platform for understanding spectator-based manufacturer equity. Log of Sport Management, twenty, 22–38.

Ross, S., Adam, J., & Vargas, G. (2006). Development of a size to assess team manufacturer associations in professional sport. Journal of Sport Managing, 20, 260–279.

Seno, Deb., & Lukas, B. (2007). The equity effect of item endorsement simply by celebrities. A conceptual structure from a co-branding point of view. European Log of

Advertising, 41, 121–134.

Sessions, T. (2004). Sportsmanship as honor. Journal in the Philosophy of Sport, thirty-one, 47–59.

Shank, M. (1999). Sports marketing: A strategic point of view (2nd impotence. ). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Shields, M. L. M., & Bredemeier, B. T. L. (1995). Character creation and exercise. Champlain, ARIANNE: Human Kinetics.

Shuart, L. (2007). Characters in sport: assessing movie star endorser efficiency. International Log of Sporting activities Marketing & Sponsorship, eight, 126–140.

New, J. (2008, July 7). Professional sports athletes, sports: The ultimate branding. Fort Worth Business Press.

High seasons, J., & Morgan, M. J. (2008). More than just the media: Thinking about the role of public relations in the creation of sporting celebrity and the management of

supporter expectations

Thomson, M. (2006). Human brands: Investigating antecedents to customers' strong attachments to celebrities. Journal of promoting, 70(3), 104–119.

Till, W. (2001). Handling athlete endorser image: The result of backed product. Sport Marketing Quarterly, 10, 35–42.

Trail, G., Robinson, M., Dick, Ur., & Gillentine, A. (2003). Motives and points of connection: Fans versus spectators in intercollegiate athletics. Sport Advertising

Quarterly, 12, 217–227.